The Value of Freedom

1. Freedom = absence of compulsion

a. external - compulsion = force or threat of force

b. internal - e.g. bad habit ("I really donít want to..."?!? - absence of psychological compulsion - composite psychology -definition?)

2. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic value. Test for intrinsic value: addition/subtraction of freedom from given circumstances adds/subtracts value

3. Deprive freedom of: surgeon = negative -> freedom is positive criminal = positive -> freedom is negative

hobo (= no one is befitted by his freedom not even he) #9; = neutral -> freedom is neutral

4. Hypnotize #3 -> agents have no value

5. Last minute compulsion - two independently sufficient motivations to act (original motivation and compulsion) does not change responsibility for action. Compare Locke.

6. Conclusion: the value of freedom is determined by its effects and/or context - freedom has no intrinsic value

7. Internal freedom: distinguish first/second level desires - compulsion is acting on a first level desire which contradicts second level desire. Freedom is agreement between the levels. Second level desires represent value judgments. So freedom = having first level desires which I believe to be right/good. So internal freedom is defined by ultimate values.

8. Pesach -> Shavuous - freedom for the sake of accepting the Torah (therefore no other slaves miraculously set free; not "universal human rights" etc.). Freedom is a means to truly valuable actions; earned through counting the Omer - 7x7 character traits - motivation and behavioral expression. Count beginning of day. (Analogy of lightening.) (only Torah makes one free).